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In this lesson you will learn:

Insert Key

The Insert (INS) key is also a toggle Key. When toggled on, it is a Type-Over Key, which means that anything typed will TYPE OVER any other text. To insert text without erasing, make sure the INS key is off.

Function Keys

Some of the functions keys that are not so obvious are the Function Keys F1 to F12. These are standardized "hot buttons" that pretty well do the same things on every computer IF they all have the same operating system. If not, then the OS has Function Keys set up to the standards that the writers of the operating system set. But these can be changed.

Function Keys may perform different tasks depending on the software. It is also possible to re "map" different regular keys to do what YOU want them to do. By pressing CTRL + the key, or ALT + the key, or "Command Key" + a key different actions can happen. The usual functions, like saving a file, opening a file etc are generally found in the Function Keys F1 - F12, but you may want a certain key combination to pop open something specific or do a specific task inside a program. Music, graphics, picture or media software all enable different functions to be programmed to the "Hot" keys. See the "Help" file for the program you are using about how to re-program "Hot" keys.

Blue Function Keys

When holding down the blue Fn button and pressing another button with Blue letters or icons, different actions to the Operating System are toggled on or off. In particular use during presentations is the blue Fn button plus the screen button to change the display from the LCD to Both to VGA or back to LCD again. When plugging the computer into a projector it is important to understand that the video signal defaults to the local machine and has to be told to show on the external device that is plugged into it. That is what the blue Fn button (or "Mirror" on a Mac) is for. Without using the toggle, nothing will display on the other screen.

Other blue Fn buttons control the sound, back light brightness, contrast, numeric keypad or other laptop / notebook functions. Blue Fn keys also serve as switches to turn the Wireless card on or off. If there is trouble doing something on a laptop, the Blue Fn keys are the first place to look.

Escape Key

The Escape key on the top left is used for "Exit" on menus. It can de-select something that was selected by mistake and can be used in conjunction with other keys to do various tasks. Another purpose of the Escape Key is to change the code used in lettering to produce symbols,define functions that change display graphics, control cursor movement, and reassign keys. These are called "Escape Sequences" and are defined by standards and rules so that all of them do the same things throughout the world.

Below is a list of Escape Sequences and how they are used:

ANSI Escape Sequence Codes

These sequences define functions that change display graphics, control cursor movement, and reassign keys.

ANSI escape sequence is a sequence of ASCII characters, the first two of which are the ASCII "Escape" character 27 (1Bh) and the left-bracket character " [ " (5Bh). The character or characters following the escape and left-bracket characters specify an alphanumeric code that controls a keyboard or display function.

ANSI escape sequences distinguish between uppercase and lowercase letters.

Information is also available on ansi-escape-sequences-vt-100.php. Search for VT100 / VT52 ANSI escape sequences.

Esc[Line;ColumnH
Esc[Line;Columnf
Cursor Position:

Moves the cursor to the specified position (coordinates). If you do not specify a position, the cursor moves to the home position at the upper-left corner of the screen (line 0, column 0). This escape sequence works the same way as the following Cursor Position escape sequence.

Esc[ValueA
Cursor Up:

Moves the cursor up by the specified number of lines without changing columns. If the cursor is already on the top line, ANSI.SYS ignores this sequence.

Esc[ValueB
Cursor Down:

Moves the cursor down by the specified number of lines without changing columns. If the cursor is already on the bottom line, ANSI.SYS ignores this sequence.

Esc[ValueC
Cursor Forward:

Moves the cursor forward by the specified number of columns without changing lines. If the cursor is already in the rightmost column, ANSI.SYS ignores this sequence.

Esc[ValueD
Cursor Backward:

Moves the cursor back by the specified number of columns without changing lines. If the cursor is already in the leftmost column, ANSI.SYS ignores this sequence.

Esc[s
Save Cursor Position:

Saves the current cursor position. You can move the cursor to the saved cursor position by using the Restore Cursor Position sequence.

Esc[u
Restore Cursor Position:

Returns the cursor to the position stored by the Save Cursor Position sequence.

Esc[2J
Erase Display:

Clears the screen and moves the cursor to the home position (line 0, column 0).

Esc[K
Erase Line:

Clears all characters from the cursor position to the end of the line (including the character at the cursor position).

Esc[Value;...;Valuem
Set Graphics Mode:

Calls the graphics functions specified by the following values. These specified functions remain active until the next occurrence of this escape sequence. Graphics mode changes the colors and attributes of text (such as bold and underline) displayed on the screen.

Text Attributes

0 All attributes off
1 Bold on
4 Underscore (on monochrome display adapter only)
5 Blink on
7 Reverse video on
8 Concealed on
 

Foreground Colors

30 Black
31 Red
32 Green
33 Yellow
34 Blue
35 Magenta
36 Cyan
37 White
 

Background Colors

40 Black
41 Red
42 Green
43 Yellow
44 Blue
45 Magenta
46 Cyan
47 White

Parameters 30 through 47 meet the ISO 6429 standard.

Esc[=Valueh Set Mode:
Changes the screen width or type to the mode specified by one of the following values:

Screen Resolution

0 40 x 25 monochrome (text)
1 40 x 25 color (text)
2 80 x 25 monochrome (text)
3 80 x 25 color (text)
4 320 x 200 4-color (graphics)
5 320 x 200 monochrome (graphics)
6 640 x 200 monochrome (graphics)
7 Enables line wrapping
13 320 x 200 color (graphics)
14 640 x 200 color (16-color graphics)
15 640 x 350 monochrome (2-color graphics)
16 640 x 350 color (16-color graphics)
17 640 x 480 monochrome (2-color graphics)
18 640 x 480 color (16-color graphics)
19 320 x 200 color (256-color graphics)
Esc[=Valuel Reset Mode:
Resets the mode by using the same values that Set Mode uses, except for 7, which disables line wrapping
(the last character in this escape sequence is a lowercase L).
Esc[Code;String;...p Set Keyboard Strings:
Redefines a keyboard key to a specified string.

the parameters for this escape sequence are defined as follows:

Code is one or more of the values listed in the following table. These values represent keyboard keys and key combinations. When using these values in a command, you must type the semicolons shown in this table in addition to the semicolons required by the escape sequence. The codes in parentheses are not available on some keyboards. ANSI.SYS will not interpret the codes in parentheses for those keyboards unless you specify the /X switch in the DEVICE command for ANSI.SYS.

String is either the ASCII code for a single character or a string contained in quotation marks. For example, both 65 and "A" can be used to represent an uppercase A.

IMPORTANT: Some of the values in the following table are not valid for all computers. Check your computer's documentation for values that are different.

Key

Code

SHIFT+code

CTRL+code

ALT+code

F1 0;59 0;84 0;94 0;104
F2 0;60 0;85 0;95 0;105
F3 0;61 0;86 0;96 0;106
F4 0;62 0;87 0;97 0;107
F5 0;63 0;88 0;98 0;108
F6 0;64 0;89 0;99 0;109
F7 0;65 0;90 0;100 0;110
F8 0;66 0;91 0;101 0;111
F9 0;67 0;92 0;102 0;112
F10 0;68 0;93 0;103 0;113
F11 0;133 0;135 0;137 0;139
F12 0;134 0;136 0;138 0;140
HOME (num keypad) 0;71 55 0;119 --
UP ARROW (num keypad) 0;72 56 (0;141) --
PAGE UP (num keypad) 0;73 57 0;132 --
LEFT ARROW (num keypad) 0;75 52 0;115 --
RIGHT ARROW (num keypad) 0;77 54 0;116 --
END (num keypad) 0;79 49 0;117 --
DOWN ARROW (num keypad) 0;80 50 (0;145) --
PAGE DOWN (num keypad) 0;81 51 0;118 --
INSERT (num keypad) 0;82 48 (0;146) --
DELETE (num keypad) 0;83 46 (0;147) --
HOME (224;71) (224;71) (224;119) (224;151)
UP ARROW (224;72) (224;72) (224;141) (224;152)
PAGE UP (224;73) (224;73) (224;132) (224;153)
LEFT ARROW (224;75) (224;75) (224;115) (224;155)
RIGHT ARROW (224;77) (224;77) (224;116) (224;157)
END (224;79) (224;79) (224;117) (224;159)
DOWN ARROW (224;80) (224;80) (224;145) (224;154)
PAGE DOWN (224;81) (224;81) (224;118) (224;161)
INSERT (224;82) (224;82) (224;146) (224;162)
DELETE (224;83) (224;83) (224;147) (224;163)
PRINT SCREEN -- -- 0;114 --
PAUSE/BREAK -- -- 0;0 --
BACKSPACE 8 8 127 (0)
ENTER 13 -- 10 (0
TAB 9 0;15 (0;148) (0;165)
NulL 0;3 -- -- --
A 97 65 1 0;30
B 98 66 2 0;48
C 99 66 3 0;46
D 100 68 4 0;32
E 101 69 5 0;18
F 102 70 6 0;33
G 103 71 7 0;34
H 104 72 8 0;35
I 105 73 9 0;23
J 106 74 10 0;36
K 107 75 11 0;37
L 108 76 12 0;38
M 109 77 13 0;50
N 110 78 14 0;49
O 111 79 15 0;24
P 112 80 16 0;25
Q 113 81 17 0;16
R 114 82 18 0;19
S 115 83 19 0;31
T 116 84 20 0;20
U 117 85 21 0;22
V 118 86 22 0;47
W 119 87 23 0;17
X 120 88 24 0;45
Y 121 89 25 0;21
Z 122 90 26 0;44
1 49 33 -- 0;120
2 50 64 0 0;121
3 51 35 -- 0;122
4 52 36 -- 0;123
5 53 37 -- 0;124
6 54 94 30 0;125
7 55 38 -- 0;126
8 56 42 -- 0;126
9 57 40 -- 0;127
0 48 41 -- 0;129
- 45 95 31 0;130
= 61 43 --- 0;131
[ 91 123 27 0;26
] 93 125 29 0;27
  92 124 28 0;43
; 59 58 -- 0;39
' 39 34 -- 0;40
, 44 60 -- 0;51
. 46 62 -- 0;52
/ 47 63 -- 0;53
` 96 126 -- (0;41)
ENTER (keypad) 13 -- 10 (0;166)
/ (keypad) 47 47 (0;142) (0;74)
* (keypad) 42 (0;144) (0;78)  --
- (keypad) 45 45 (0;149) (0;164)
+ (keypad) 43 43 (0;150) (0;55)
5 (keypad) (0;76) 53 (0;143)  --

ALT Key

ALT key codes are used to toggle symbols that are used in documents. To use the codes you MUST use the numeric keypad. On a laptop you must turn the numeric keypad on. In any windows computer press and hold the ALT key and then the number.

Letters with Accents

this list is organized by Accent type. To determine the appropriate numeric code, match the accent with the vowel. Search for individual 'By Language' pages to see how to handle other accents.

Accent A E I O U Y
Grave
(Cap)
À
0192
È
0200
Ì
0204
Ò
0210
Ù
0217
 
Grave (Lower) à
0224
è
0232
ì
0236
ò
0242
ù
0249
 
Acute
(Cap)
Á
0193
É
0201
Í
0205
Ó
0211
Ú
0218
Ý
0221
Acute (Lower) á
0225
é
0233
í
0237
ó
0243
ú
0250
ý
0253
Circumflex
(Cap)
Â
0194
Ê
0202
Î
0206
Ô
0212
Û
0219
 
Circumflex (Lower) â
0226
ê
0234
î
0238
ô
0244
û
0251
 
Tilde
(Cap)
Ã
0195
-- Ñ
0209
Õ
0213
--  
Tilde (Lower) ã
0227
-- ñ
0241
õ
0245
--  
Umlaut
(Cap)
Ä
0196
Ë
0203
Ï
0207
Ö
0214
Ü
0220
Ÿ
0159
Umlaut (Lower) ä
0228
ë
0235
ï
0239
ö
0246
ü
0252
ÿ
0255

Example: To input the acute a á(0225), hold down the ALT key, type 0225 on the numeric keypad, then release the ALT key.

If you are having problems inputting these codes, please review the instructions for using the codes at the bottom of this Web page.

Additional Codes

Search for the Specific Language Pages for additional codes for accented characters. Note that codes may only work in Microsoft Office.

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Other Foreign Characters

These include special punctuation and unique consonant and vowel symbols.

SYMBOL NAME CODE NUMBER
¡ Upside-down exclamation mark 0161
¿ Upside-down question mark 0191
Ç, ç French C cedille (caps/lowecase) 0199
0231
Œ,œ O-E ligature (caps/lowecase) 0140
0156
ß German Sharp/Double S 0223
º, ª Masculine Ordinal Number (Span/Ital/Portuguese)
Feminine Ordinal Number
0186
0170
Ø,ø Nordic O slash (caps/lowecase) 0216
0248
Å,å Nordic A ring (caps/lowecase), Angstrom sign 0197
0229
Æ, æ A-E ligature (caps/lowecase) 0198
0230
Þ, þ Icelandic/Old English thorn (caps/lowecase)
See web by language pages for other Old English Characters
0222
0254
Ð, ð Icelandic/Old English Eth (caps/lowecase)
See web bylanguage pages for other Old English Characters
0208
0240
« » Spanish/French angle quotation marks 0171
0187
‹ › Spanish/French angle single quotation marks 0139
0155
Š š Czech S hachek (S Caron)
(caps/lowercase)
See web by language pages for other Czech Characters
0138
0154
Ž ž Czech S hachek (Z Caron)
(caps/lowercase)
See web bylanguage pages for other Czech Characters
0142
0158

Additional Codes

Search for Specific Language Page for additional codes for additional foreign language characters. Note that codes may only work in Microsoft Office.

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Currency Symbols

SYMBOL NAME CODE NUMBER
¢ Cent sign 0162
£ British Pound 0163
Euro currency 0128
¥ Japanese Yen 0165
ƒ Dutch Florin 0131
¤ Generic currency symbol 0164
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Math Symbols

SYMBOL NAME CODE NUMBER
÷ Division sign 0247
° Degree symbol 0176
¬ Not symbol 0172
± Plus/minus 0177
µ Micro 0181
Per Mille (1/1000th) 0137

Fractions

These codes produce fractions which are spaced on one line.

SYMBOL NAME CODE NUMBER
¼ Fraction 1/4 0188
½ Fraction 1/2 0189
¾ Fraction 3/4 0190

Superscript and Subscript

Check these references for other methods to implement superscript/subscript and extra fractions

Additional Math Codes

Search for the Unicode Math Chart for additional codes for Math symbols. Note that they only work in Microsoft Office and that you should use the non-Hex code. For instance an entry ∛ for the cube root symbol (∛) would correspond to ALT+8731 in Word.

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other Punctuation

These include copyright symbols and special section marks.

SYMBOL NAME CODE NUMBER
© Copyright symbol 0169
® Registered symbol 0174
Trademark 0153
List Dot 0149
§ Section Symbol 0167
Dagger 0134
Double Dagger 0135
en-dash 0150
em-dash 0151
Paragraph Symbol (Pilcrow) 0182
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Using the Codes

Windows assigns a numeric code to different accented letters, other foreign characters and special Mathematical symbols. For instance the code for lower case á is 0225, and the code for capital Á is 0193. The ALT key input is used to manually insert these letters and symbols by calling the numeric code assigned to them.

To use the codes:

  1. Place your cursor in the location where you wish to insert a special character.
  2. Activate the numeric key pad on the right of the keyboard by pressing Num Lock (upper right of keyboard). The Num Lock light on the keyboard will indicate that the numeric key pad is on.

NOTE: You must use the numeric key pad; if you use the number keys on the top of the keyboard, the characters will not appear. If you are on a laptop or computer without a separate numeric keypad one of the other methods is recommended.

  1. While pressing down the ALT key, type the four-digit code on the numeric key pad at the right edge of the keyboard. The codes are "case sensitive." For instance, the code for lower-case á is ALT+0225, but capital Á is ALT+0193.

NOTE: If you have the International keyboard activated you will only be able to input codes with the ALT key on the left side of the keyboard.

  1. Release the ALT key. The character will appear when the ALT key is released.

NOTE: You must include the initial zero in the code. For example to insert á (0225) you must type ALT+0225, NOT ALT+225.